Although leprosy is one of the world’s oldest and most lasting diseases, the bacteria that cause it may have an unexpected ability to grow and rebuild a vital organ.
The research was published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine.
Scientists have discovered that parasites associated with leprosy can reprogramme cells in adult animals to expand the size of the liver without producing damage, scarring, or tumours.
The findings suggest the possibility of adapting this natural process to renew ageing livers and increase healthspan — the length of time living disease-free — in humans.
Experts say it could also help regrow damaged livers, thereby reducing the need for transplantation, which is currently the only curative option for people with end-stage scarred livers.
Previous studies promoted the regrowth of mouse livers by generating stem cells and progenitor cells — the step after a stem cell that can become any type of cell for a specific organ — via an invasive technique that often resulted in scarring and tumour growth.
To overcome these harmful side effects, Edinburgh researchers built on their previous discovery of the partial cellular reprogramming ability of the leprosy-causing bacteria, Mycobacterium leprae.
Working with the US Department of Health and Human Services in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, the team infected 57 armadillos — a natural host of leprosy bacteria — with the parasite and compared their livers with those of uninfected armadillos and those that were found to be resistant to infection.
They found that the infected animals developed enlarged — yet healthy and unharmed — livers with the same vital components, such as blood vessels, bile ducts and functional units known as lobules, as the uninfected and resistant armadillos.
The team believe the bacteria ‘hijacked’ the inherent regenerative ability of the liver to increase the organ’s size and, therefore, to provide it with more cells within which to grow.
They also discovered several indicators that the main kinds of liver cells — known as hepatocytes — had reached a “rejuvenated” state in the infected armadillos.
Livers of the infected armadillos also contained gene expression patterns — the blueprint for building a cell — similar to those in younger animals and human fetal livers.
Genes related to metabolism, growth and cell proliferation were activated and those linked with ageing were downregulated or suppressed.
Scientists think this is because the bacteria reprogrammed the liver cells, returning them to the earlier stage of progenitor cells, which in turn became new hepatocytes and grew new liver tissues.
The researchers anticipate that their discovery may aid in the development of human therapies for ageing and damaged livers. Liver illnesses kill two million people worldwide each year.
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